Hypoglycaemia

This term stands for too low a level of sugar in blood. People who are using medication for lowering of hypoglycaemia have a lower level of sugar in their blood when this value is lower then 3.5 3,5 mmol/l (milimol per litre). Hypoglycaemia can afflict especially people who suffer from diabetes of the type 2. Some anti-diabetic drugs cause an increase of insulin production which results in an increased transfer of sugar from blood to cells and thus a reduction of the level of sugar in blood. Hypoglycaemia is accompanied by many unpleasant symptoms; the most common is a feeling of weakness, sleepiness, confusion, sweating, shiver, hunger, anxiety and dizziness. Also concentration disorder and in some serious cases even loss of consciousness can arise. In some cases a person can even fall into a hypoglycaemic coma. Longer lasting hypoglycaemia can even result in the damage of brain.

Hyperglycaemia

This term stands for too high level of sugar in blood. Short periods of higher level of sugar in blood are not usually serious but a long term increase of levels of sugar in the blood can result in serious complications. The main symptoms are intense thirst, frequent urination, intense hunger, defocused vision, spasms in legs. Hyperglycaemia can afflict people with diabetes of the type 1 in which case it is caused by the lack of insulin and also people with diabetes of the type 2 where hyperglycaemia is caused by insufficient sensitivity of tissue to insulin.

Level of sugar in blood

Parameter Standard valuesIncreased values
Glucose on empty stomach4,2–6 mmol/l over 6 mmol/l
Glycanated haemoglobinUp to 4% over 4 %

Doctors would probably also carry the so called oral glucoses toleration test. A patient drinks glucose and subsequently a doctor, at certain timed intervals, measures the level of sugar in blood.

Mmol/l

This is a coefficient used in the Czech Republic for measuring the level of sugar in blood -mmol/l (milimol per litre). Standard values are between 4 and 6 mmol/l. Abroad there is also used mg/dl (milligram per decilitre). A standard level of sugar (glucoses) in the blood in a healthy person is between 72 – 108 mg/dl. These units are e.g. used by glucometres that are used abroad. The relationship between these units is as follows:

Formula for calculation of mg/dl from mmol/l is: mg/dl = 18 × mmol/l

Formula for calculation of mmol/l from mg/dl is: mmol/l = mg/dl / 18

For example if the level of sugar in blood is 5 mmol/l, the conversion to mg/dl is:

18 × 5 mmol/dl = 90 mg/dl

Borderline values of sugar in blood

timevalue
before breakfast3,9 – 5,9 mmol/l
before lunch3,9 – 6,1 mmol/l
an hour after mealless then 8,9 mmol/l
two hours after mealless then 6,7 mmol/l
between 2 and 4 o’clock a.m.More then 3,9 mmol/l

Table of values in mg/dl and mmol/l

mg/ dlmmol/ l
360
350
340
330
320
310
300
290
280
270
260
250
240
230
220
210
200
190
180
170
160
150
140
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
20,0
19,4
18,9
18,3
17,8
17,2
16,7
16,1
15,6
15,0
14,4
13,9
13,3
12,8
12,2
11,7
11,1
10,6
10,0
9,4
8,9
8,3
7,8
7,2
6,7
6,1
5,6
5,0
4,4
3,9
3,3
2,8
2,2
1,7
1,1
0,6

Sources:http://www.mte.cz,http://www.aimport.cz